Glossary - Renewable and low carbon road fuels | Coryton

Sustainability
17 October 2022

Glossary – Renewable and low carbon road fuels

To improve the understanding of terms used for renewable and low carbon road transport fuels see the glossary below:

 

Liquid fuels

Term (and acronym) Meaning
1G (First generation) Term describing biofuels that are produced from crops that can be used as food or feed e.g. sugar, starch or oil crops
2G (Second generation) Biofuels that are manufactured from non-food biomass
B10 A blend of up to 10% biodiesel / FAME (meeting BS EN 14214) with the remainder petroleum diesel (meeting BS EN 590) which when combined typically meet BS EN 16734
B100 Pure biodiesel/FAME, typically meeting the requirements of BS EN 14214
B20 A blend of up to 20% biodiesel / FAME (meeting BS EN 14214) with the remainder petroleum diesel (meeting BS EN 590) which when combined typically meet BS EN 16709
B30 A blend of up to 30% biodiesel / FAME (meeting BS EN 14214) with the remainder petroleum diesel (meeting BS EN 590) which when combined typically meet BS EN 16709
B7 A blend of up to 7% biodiesel / FAME with the remainder petroleum diesel. This is the diesel fuel sold at retail outlets (filling stations used by the public to fill their diesel cars) and typically meets BS EN 590
BtL (Biomass to Liquid) See 'GtL' below
Bio petrol / biogasoline A hydrocarbon made entirely from biomass sources which is functionally equivalent to gasoline
Bioblend No longer a commonly used term, but defined in the Hydrocarbon Oil Duties Act as "Any mixture that is produced by mixing both: biodiesel and heavy oil that has not been charged with the excise duty on hydrocarbon oil"
Biodiesel A renewable liquid fuel consisting predominantly of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and meeting the requirements of BS EN 14214
Bioethanol Ethanol made from biomass and meeting the requirements of EN 15376
Bioethanol blend A blend of bioethanol that meets the requirements of EN 15376 and gasoline
Bio-LPG Another term for either biopropane or biobutane
Biomethanol A renewable liquid fuel consisting methanol made from biomass feedstocks (CH3-OH). It can be blended in with gasoline
Blend wall The maximum percentage of a particular renewable fuel that can be blended into retail fuels while meeting conventional fuel standards
Development fuel A fuel meeting the RTFO eligibility criteria for the development fuels sub target, i.e. a fuel made from a waste or a RFNBO, but not made from segregated oils or fats. And which is one of the following fuel types: • Hydrogen, biosynthetic natural gas (BioSNG), • Sustainable Aviation Fuel or • a fuel able to be blended at levels over 25% by volume and still meet the EN 228 or EN590 fuel specifications
DME (Dimethyl ether) Dimethyl ether (CH3-O-CH3) can be liquified under low pressure and used as an alternative to diesel. Can be synthesised from renewables (see rDME)
Drop-in fuel Drop-in fuels are alternatives to fossil fuels that can be blended at any level into standard fuels without requiring changes to vehicles or infrastructure. (Some fuels commonly described as “drop-in” may not meet current technical fuel standards (EN590 / 228) in all respects, but are warranted by OEMs to be used in certain vehicles at any blend level (up to 100%)
E10 A blend of up to 10% bioethanol (meeting BS EN 15376) with the remainder gasoline which when combined typically meet BS EN 228
E5 A blend of up to 5% bioethanol (meeting BS EN 15376) with the remainder gasoline which when combined typically meet BS EN 228
E85 A blend of up to 85% bioethanol (meeting BS EN 15376) with the remainder gasoline
e-fuel A specific subset of synthetic fuels that use hydrogen produced by renewable electricity
ETBE (Ethyl tertiary butyl ether) A common additive to gasoline. It is produced by reacting isobutene with ethanol. It can be produced from renewable resources. Chemical formula (CH3)3C-O-C2CH3
ETG or E2G (Ethanol-to-Gasoline) The process that converts ethanol (or bioethanol) to gasoline via dehydration and oligomerization usually over a zeolite catalyst
FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) Pure biodiesel, typically meeting the requirements of BS EN 14214
FT (Fischer Tropsch reaction) A collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (or "syngas") into liquid hydrocarbons
GtL (Gas-to-liquid) These are all synthetic fuels, made from methane or syngas (from gasification) converted to a liquid hydrocarbon through the FT process. • Renewable sources of gas include: a) Syngas (from the gasification of pure biomass) b) Biogas c) BioSNG (i.e. derived from syngas from the gasification of pure biomass) (a-c could also be termed BtL biomass to liquid) d) RFNBO methane, i.e. methane made from reacting renewable hydrogen with CO2 (in which case it could be referred to as an e-fuel) • Fossil fuel sources include: a) natural gas / gasified coal (could be CtL – coal to liquid) b) Recycled carbon fuel. Or it could be a combination of the above. E.g. syngas from gasification of a mixed waste containing biogenic and recycled carbon feedstock (in which case the resulting fuel would be a part renewable and part RCF fuel)
HBBF (High blend biofuel) A term often used for fuels with a renewable content that is greater than that of the retail equivalent. E.g. B20, B30 and B100 are all fuels with high blend of biodiesel compared to B7, plus E15, E20 and above (in countries where E10 is the retail grade). (Biomethane could also be supplied in a blend with natural gas (at any proportion)
HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil) A paraffinic diesel very similar to petroleum diesel but made by the hydrotreatment of vegetable oils or other lipids, typically meeting the requirements of BS EN 15940
LCF (Low Carbon Fuel) Fuels that can provide GHG savings compared to fossil fuels on a life-cycle basis
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Gases derived from petroleum sources in liquid form; can be any mixture of propane and butane
MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether) A common additive to petrol. It is produced by reacting isobutene with methanol. It can also be produced from renewable resources. Chemical formula (CH3)3C-O-CH3
MTG or M2G (Methanol-to-Gasoline) The process that converts methanol (or biomethanol) to gasoline. Methanol is first converted to dimethyl ether by being passed over a gamma-alumina catalyst. The methyl ether is then passed over a zeolite catalyst to oligomerize into longer chain hydrocarbons to gasoline
Paraffinic diesel A fuel comprising predominantly alkanes that is functionally equivalent to diesel. It can be made by hydrotreating lipids or via the gas to liquid or power to liquid routes. It typically meets the requirements of BS EN 15940
Petroleum Petroleum is a naturally occurring liquid found beneath the earth's surface that can be refined into fuel. Petroleum is a fossil fuel, meaning that it has been created by the decomposition of organic matter over millions of years
PtL (Power-to-Liquid) A fuel produced using renewable electricity and sources of carbon to produce fuels through synthesis
Pure bio oil A fuel type classification used by RTFO Unit which includes fuels referred to as "Pure vegetable oil" in previous years' RTFO statistical reports
RCF (Recycled Carbon Fuel) Recycled carbon fuels (RCFs) are fuels produced from fossil wastes that cannot be avoided, reused or recycled and have the potential to reduce GHG emissions relative to conventional transport fuels. Feedstocks include industrial waste gases and the fossil-derived fraction of municipal solid waste (e.g. non-recyclable plastic). Some feedstocks can be considered part renewable and part RCF when combined with biogenic material such as food waste
rDME (Dimethyl ether) DME synthesised from renewable feedstocks. For the potential renewable sources, see definition of GtL. Chemical formula C2H6O
Renewable diesel A common term for various forms of non-fossil derived diesel fuel, including FAME, HVO or paraffinic diesel (when made from renewable sources). Sometimes this term is used for HVO or paraffinic diesel exclusively (to distinguish from FAME/biodiesel)
RFNBO (Renewable Fuel of Non-Biological Origin) Rather than from biomass, the energy content of a RFNBO typically comes from renewable energy such as wind or solar
RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester) Biodiesel produced from rapeseed oil
Synthetic Fuel A fuel which is produced from a mix of hydrogen and a carbon source (e.g. carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide). A synthetic fuel can also be classed as a renewable fuel if the hydrogen is produced from a renewable source and any carbon source used is from a renewable or unavoidable carbon stream, for example an industrial process where carbon dioxide would otherwise be vented into the atmosphere, in which case it would be a RFNBO
TME (Tallow Methyl Ester) Biodiesel produced from tallow
UCOME (Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Biodiesel produced from used cooking oil

Gaseous fuels

Term (and acronym) Meaning
Biobutane Butane derived from renewable sources. Chemical formula C4H10
BioCNG A term used for compressed biomethane. This can also be referred to as CBM – compressed biomethane (not to be confused with Coal Bed Methane)
BioLNG A term used for liquefied biomethane. This can also be referred to as LBM – liquified biomethane
BioLPG Another term for either biopropane or biobutane. (Is liquid when under pressure)
Biomethane Methane (CH4) derived from biomass, either via a biological route – anaerobic digestion – (in a dedicated AD plant, sewage treatment works or landfill), or thermal route via gasification and methanation of the syngas
Biopropane Propane (C3H8) made from biomass. Most commonly derived as a by-product of the HVO production process
BioSNG (bio Substitute Natural Gas) Term used for renewable methane via the thermal route (unspecified as to whether it is compressed or liquified). This qualifies as a development fuel (if made from waste) under the RTFO
CBM (Compressed Biomethane) Compressed Biomethane. (NB not to be confused with Coal Bed Methane)
LBM (Liquified Biomethane) Biomethane (in liquified form). Liquified Bio Methane
RFNBO (Renewable Fuel of Non-Biological Origin) Rather than from biomass, the energy content of a RFNBO typically comes from renewable energy
SNG (Synthetic / Substitute Natural Gas) Gas (mainly methane) which can be produced by a number of routes which may be more commonly referred to by more specific terminology. E.g. if produced by anaerobic digestion and CO2 removal = biomethane; gasification and gas clean up of biomass = bioSNG. It can also be produced by the gasification of coal

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